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Listening Games for Children with Speech Difficulties

Sixteen suggested listening games for children with speech difficulties. Developing good listening skills and attention control are essential for the further development of speech sounds. The games outlined here are a relatively easy and relaxed way to help young children develop the underpinning skills necessary for speech sound development.

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Speech development, speech disorders, phonetics, phonology, articulation, speech perception...and much more!


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The communication chain, conversation, body language, communication disorders...etc...etc


Voice development, voice disorders, voice care for adults and children, how to improve vocal habits, voice assessment and measurement...and so much more!


The causes of stuttering, nature and definition of stuttering, stuttering problems, fluency shaping, characteristics of stuttering…etc.

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Easy to read human speech, language and communication needs articles written in Plain English. Includes free printable PDF files for use by clinicians, parents, carers, teachers...etc.

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Appendix 1: Answers

appendix 1 answers

Suggested answers to Exercises   1. Phonemic, syllabic and word.           2. flag /flæg/ → /fæg/ = initial cluster reduction   snake /sneɪk/ → /səneɪk/ = epenthesis   police /pəˈlis/ → /ˈlis/ = weak syllable deletion   posts /peʊsts/ → /peʊs/ = final cluster reduction   case /keɪs/ → /seɪk/ = metathesis (switching)   cup /kʌp/ […]

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1. Name the three levels at which the speech sound system is organized.   2. Analyze the realizations of the following words and identify which structural phonological simplifying process (Reduplication, Deletion, Cluster Reduction, Metathesis, Epenthesis) may be operating, e.g. dog /dɒg/ → /dɒ/ = final consonant deletion; lamp /læmp/ → /læm/ = final cluster reduction; rabbit /ræbɪt/ → /bærɪt/ = metathesis, film […]

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co-occurrence of phonological processes

The phonological simplifying processes described in PHONOLOGY 101 should serve to illustrate that many of the ‘mistakes’ children make are not really errors at all. In fact, the majority of children are still using some phonological simplifying processes up to the age of 5;00 years, and some even beyond this. As with most processes of human communication, phonological simplifying processes do […]

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summary of phonological simplifying processes

The phonological structural simplifications and systemic simplifications discussed in PHONOLOGY 101 are listed in Table 15.   Table 15. Phonological simplifying processes. Table 16 provides summary definitions of each structural process, with examples, and Table 17 presents summary definitions and examples of each systemic phonological simplifying process.   Table 16. Summary definitions of structural phonological processes.   Table 17. […]

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Cluster Coalescence

cluster coalescence

Clusters are often simplified by the process of feature synthesis. This occurs when the phonetic characteristics of one segment of the cluster are combined with the phonetic characteristics of the other segment, thereby yielding just one new single segment. Consider the following.   smoke /sməʊk/ → [m̥əʊk]   In this example, the voicelessness of the initial /s/in the cluster is […]

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Feature Synthesis

feature synthesis

FEATURE SYNTHESIS Definition: Combining the features of two segments to yield a single different segment. Comment: Mutual influence between two speech sounds causes them to fuse and generate a single different sound. Examples: spoon /spun/ → [fun] sleep /slip/ → [ɬip]   As well as progressive and regressive assimilation, there is a third type of assimilation. This occurs when […]

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Human Communication 101 is a series of introductory texts providing high quality information on selected aspects of human communication, with particular emphasis on speech, language and communication needs.

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Focus on Stuttering

The Causes of Stuttering

The causes of stuttering are unknown but neurological development, parental reaction, trauma and a predisposition to stuttering have all been suggested.