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Specialist Speech and Language Therapist Job

Specialist speech and language therapists (speech-language pathologists) have additional expert training to work with a particular age group, impairment or communication disorder. They undertake special post-graduate training.

New training package (Dec 2017)

FREE training pack (with audio)

Prolonged Speech Pack (Overview)

A THERAPY RESOURCE to assist with the teaching and learning of Prolonged Speech to reduce stuttering. Includes a guidebook, printable worksheets and audio files.

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Speech development, speech disorders, phonetics, phonology, articulation, speech perception...and much more!


Language development, acquisition, verbal language, syntxx, morphology, pragmatics...and more!


The communication chain, conversation, body language, communication disorders...etc...etc


Voice development, voice disorders, voice care for adults and children, how to improve vocal habits, voice assessment and measurement...and so much more!


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Easy to read human speech, language and communication needs articles written in Plain English. Includes free printable PDF files for use by clinicians, parents, carers, teachers...etc.

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co-occurrence of phonological processes

The phonological simplifying processes described in PHONOLOGY 101 should serve to illustrate that many of the ‘mistakes’ children make are not really errors at all. In fact, the majority of children are still using some phonological simplifying processes up to the age of 5;00 years, and some even beyond this. As with most processes of human communication, phonological simplifying processes do […]

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summary of phonological simplifying processes

The phonological structural simplifications and systemic simplifications discussed in PHONOLOGY 101 are listed in Table 15.   Table 15. Phonological simplifying processes. Table 16 provides summary definitions of each structural process, with examples, and Table 17 presents summary definitions and examples of each systemic phonological simplifying process.   Table 16. Summary definitions of structural phonological processes.   Table 17. […]

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Cluster Coalescence

cluster coalescence

Clusters are often simplified by the process of feature synthesis. This occurs when the phonetic characteristics of one segment of the cluster are combined with the phonetic characteristics of the other segment, thereby yielding just one new single segment. Consider the following.   smoke /sməʊk/ → [m̥əʊk]   In this example, the voicelessness of the initial /s/in the cluster is […]

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Feature Synthesis

feature synthesis

FEATURE SYNTHESIS Definition: Combining the features of two segments to yield a single different segment. Comment: Mutual influence between two speech sounds causes them to fuse and generate a single different sound. Examples: spoon /spun/ → [fun] sleep /slip/ → [ɬip]   As well as progressive and regressive assimilation, there is a third type of assimilation. This occurs when […]

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Voicing Change

voicing change

VOICING CHANGE Definition: Replacing voiceless consonants with voiced consonants and voiced consonants with voiceless consonants. Comment: This process is particularly noticeable as voiceless consonants at the start of words being voiced, and voiced consonants at the ends of words being de-voiced. Examples: sun /sʌn/ → /zʌn/             (voicing) nose /nəʊz/ → /nəʊs/      (de-voicing)   In principle, voicing […]

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Labial Harmony

labial harmony

NB: This sub-section discusses Labial Harmony which is a particular type of Consonant Harmony. Labial harmony process As well as velars functioning as triggers, labials can also act as triggers. When a labial consonant triggers the assimilation of a target consonant then this is known as labial harmony. Once again, alveolars are particularly susceptible to this type of consonant harmony. Consider […]

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Human Communication 101 is a series of introductory texts providing high quality information on selected aspects of human communication, with particular emphasis on speech, language and communication needs.

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Focus on Stuttering

The Causes of Stuttering

The causes of stuttering are unknown but neurological development, parental reaction, trauma and a predisposition to stuttering have all been suggested.