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Comprehensive information on all aspects of human communication and speech therapy, including speech, language, voice, stuttering and much more.....

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Speech

Speech development, speech disorders, phonetics, phonology, articulation, speech perception...and much more!

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Language

Language development, acquisition, verbal language, syntax, morphology, pragmatics...and more!

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Communication

The communication chain, conversation, body language, communication disorders...etc...etc

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Featured Article

Stuttering Problems

There are many stuttering problems for people who stutter. People with an established stutter are aware of the negative effect of repetitions, prolongations, hesitations and blocks on their speech. Their stutter (stammer) may be accompanied by facial tics and uncontrolled body movements. Stuttering can lead to the avoidance of certain activities and to social isolation.

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Latest articles...

Speech Sound Development Chart

A speech sound development chart shows normative data that identifies which particular speech sounds are used, on average, at what particular age.

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Speech Development

The development of speech sounds, leading to the production of words, follows a predictable pattern. In the first year, children typically pass through four speech development stages: vegetative sounds, cooing and laughter, vocal play, and babbling. Babbling marks the transition into linguistic development, as the child passes through the One Word Stage and on to full mastery of speech sounds by about six years of age. English consonants are acquired in a front-to-back manner, with plosives being used before fricatives.

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Speech Delay

Speech delay is the failure to develop speech capabilities at the expected chronological age. The child may progress through expected developmental milestones in a sequential order but their progress lags several months behind their typically-developing peers. Speech delay may present as a phonetic delay (articulation delay) or a phonological delay – or the two may co-exist. This article presents some phonetic and phonological developmental milestones that can be used to assess delayed speech.

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Phonological Processes

Young children have insufficient ability to co-ordinate the movement of their vocal apparatus. Therefore, they simplify the production of complex words. These simplifications are not random but predictable. Many phonological processes have been identified. This article considers structural simplifications such as deletion, metathesis and cluster reduction, and systemic simplifications such as substitutions and assimilations.

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Phonological Disorder

Phonological processes help the developing child by simplifying the production of complex speech. If these processes are not eradicated by an appropriate age the child may present with a phonological disorder: systematically altering the structure of words and/or substituting speech sounds.

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Phonological Organization

The speech sound system is organized at least at three levels: phonemic, syllabic and word. This is known as phonological organization.

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Allophones

Unlike phonemes, allophones do not create distinctions in meaning between one word and another. They are variant ways of articulating the same phoneme. That is to say, they are predictable phonetic variants.

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Phonemes

Phonemes are the basic unit of speech. They are the simplest speech sounds that are used to differentiate between one word and another. A phoneme is capable of creating distinctions in meaning between words.

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