Transcribing speech requires the use of a standardized system. The International Phonetic Alphabet is a notational system for transcribing the speech sounds of any world language. It is needed because there is no clear cut, one-to-one relationship between an alphabet letter and a speech sound. Download a copy of the full IPA chart here.
There are many stuttering problems for people who stutter. People with an established stutter are aware of the negative effect of repetitions, prolongations, hesitations and blocks on their speech. Their stutter (stammer) may be accompanied by facial tics and uncontrolled body movements. Stuttering can lead to the avoidance of certain activities and to social isolation.