To analyze conversation, audio data is typically transcribed into a written form that is amenable to analysis. There are two general approaches. The first is a more detailed method that captures the minutiae of conversational interaction, known as a narrow transcription. The second requires less detail and is known as a broad transcription. This article provides examples of both methods and introduces a format for visually displaying the relative distribution of speaker participation in conversations.
There are many stuttering problems for people who stutter. People with an established stutter are aware of the negative effect of repetitions, prolongations, hesitations and blocks on their speech. Their stutter (stammer) may be accompanied by facial tics and uncontrolled body movements. Stuttering can lead to the avoidance of certain activities and to social isolation.