Transmission models of communication stress the need to achieve an appropriate balance between messages with highly unpredictable information (entropy) and highly predictable information (redundancy). In this way, communication between speakers and hearers is improved.
There are many stuttering problems for people who stutter. People with an established stutter are aware of the negative effect of repetitions, prolongations, hesitations and blocks on their speech. Their stutter (stammer) may be accompanied by facial tics and uncontrolled body movements. Stuttering can lead to the avoidance of certain activities and to social isolation.