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Comprehensive information on all aspects of human communication and speech therapy, including speech, language, voice, stuttering and much more.....

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Listening Games for Children with Speech Difficulties

Sixteen suggested listening games for children with speech difficulties. Developing good listening skills and attention control are essential for the further development of speech sounds. The games outlined here are a relatively easy and relaxed way to help young children develop the underpinning skills necessary for speech sound development.

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Speech development, speech disorders, phonetics, phonology, articulation, speech perception...and much more!


Language development, acquisition, verbal language, syntax, morphology, pragmatics...and more!


The communication chain, conversation, body language, communication disorders...etc...etc


Voice development, voice disorders, voice care for adults and children, how to improve vocal habits, voice assessment and measurement...and so much more!


The causes of stuttering, nature and definition of stuttering, stuttering problems, fluency shaping, characteristics of stuttering…etc.

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Easy to read human speech, language and communication needs articles written in Plain English. Includes free printable PDF files for use by clinicians, parents, carers, teachers...etc.

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Easy Onset

ssv easy onset

Instructions Single words This is an extension of the exercises introduced in Yawn-sigh into Vowels and Limbering on ‘h’. To begin with, have the clients produce each word as if following the yawn-sigh exercise, i.e. Have clients take in a deep, relaxed breath using the abdominal technique, yawning if necessary. Have them gently expel the […]

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Limbering on ‘m’

ssv limbering on m

Instructions This exercise is similar to Limbering on /h/. This time, however, all sounds (/m/ and vowels) are voiced. A right way to hum Before beginning this exercise, it is important to explain that there is a ‘right way to hum’ and a ‘wrong way to hum’. The ‘wrong way’ can be described as a […]

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Limbering on ‘h’

ssv limbering on h

Instructions This is a standard precursory exercise for introducing the concept of easy onset. Identifying vibrations of the vocal cords You have already introduced the clients to the vowels. If you have not already done so, ask them to place a hand on their voice box and say the sound /ɑ/ (ah) for a few […]

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Yawn-Sigh into Vowels

Instructions The focus of this ‘yawn-sigh’ exercise is to help clients phonate without deliberately forcing or pushing the voice. Clients should be encouraged to identify for themselves the relaxed, easy phonation and the absence of any resistance or blocks to producing voice. They can be reminded that the vowels are ‘open’ sounds, i.e. there is […]

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Guide to Vowels

ssv guide to vowels

Instructions This is a reference sheet to remind the client what the vowels used in this second session, and in the third session, sound like. The vowels are represented orthographically for clients as follows. orthographic representation IPA symbol oo u oh oʊ[1] aw ɔ ah ɑ ay eɪ ee i   It is helpful to […]

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Head and Neck Exercises

ssv head and neck exercises

Note All head and neck exercises should be carried out gently. If you experience any pain or discomfort when doing these exercises, stop immediately and consult your speech-language pathologist or physician. [These exercises are helpful in a number of speech-language therapy interventions, so they have been presented elsewhere on this website (see Head and Neck […]

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Human Communication 101 is a series of introductory texts providing high quality information on selected aspects of human communication, with particular emphasis on speech, language and communication needs.

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Focus on Stuttering

The Causes of Stuttering

The causes of stuttering are unknown but neurological development, parental reaction, trauma and a predisposition to stuttering have all been suggested.