Connected speech processes
Table 2 summarizes all the processes affecting pronunciation in rapidly articulated connected speech that we have discussed in this section.
|Word-final alveolars are dentalized before dental fricatives.
|Word-final nasals are labialized before labiodental fricatives.
|Word-final labiodental fricatives are labialized before bilabial plosives.
|Word-initial /l, r/ are de-voiced after voiceless consonants.
|Word-final /l/ is not velarized before a word-initial vowel.
|Word-final voiced plosives, fricatives and affricates are not de-voiced before a word-initial vowel or voiced consonant.
|Word-final voiced fricatives and affricates become voiceless before voiceless consonants.
|Word-final /t, d, n/ become bilabial before bilabial consonants.
|Word-final /nt, nd/ become bilabial before bilabial consonants.
|Word-final /t, d, n/ become velar before velar plosives.
|Word-final /nt, nd/ become velar before velar plosives.
|Word-final /t, d, s, z/ become post-alveolar before the post-alveolar approximant /j/, with possible disappearance of /j/.
|Word-final /s, z/ become post-alveolar before the voiceless post-alveolar fricative / ʃ/ and the post-alveolar approximant /j/, with possible disappearance of /j/.
|Word-final /d/ becomes nasal before a nasal, at the same place of articulation as the nasal.
|Word-final /v/ becomes nasal before a nasal, at the same place of articulation as the nasal.
|Word-final vowels followed by word-initial vowels may be linked with /r/.
|Word-initial /h/ is frequently omitted.
|Word-final /t, d/ preceded by a consonant and followed by a consonant in word-initial position are omitted.
|Vowels in monosyllabic function words are frequently reduced to /ə/ or /ɪ/.
|Vowels in unstressed syllables are frequently reduced /ə/ or /ɪ/, or omitted completely.
Table 2. Processes operating to affect pronunciation in connected speech.
This concludes Connected Speech 101