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Stopping

STOPPING Definition: Replacing continuant consonants with stop consonants. Comment:…

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SYSTEMIC SIMPLIFICATIONS

What is systemic simplification? Unlike structural simplifications, systemic simplifications do not alter the syllable structure of a word. Rather, they systematically alter a particular type of speech sound and replace it with another speech sound. Systemic simplifying processes may be divided into two types: substitution…

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Substitution

Types of substitution There are many different types of substitution that can be made in typically developing speech. We will consider seven of these in this subsection: fronting backing stopping denasalization frication gliding labialization…

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Backing

BACKING Definition: Replacing a non-velar or non-glottal consonant with a velar or glottal consonant.

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Post-alveolar Fronting

Post-alveolar fronting explained We have indicated elsewhere (see Fronting) that, as well as velar consonants being fronted, post-alveolar consonants can also be affected. Fronting of /ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ/ is known as post-alveolar fronting (or sometimes palato-alveolar fronting). Like velar fronting, it can occur in syllable-initial or syllable-final position. Consider…

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Velar Fronting

Velar fronting explained Consider the word cup /kʌp/. This word begins with the velar plosive /k/ followed by the vowel /ʌ/ and finally by the bilabial plosive /p/. Rather than producing the velar consonant /k/ – at the back of the mouth – the child may produce a sound…

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