Speech & Language Therapy Information

Category Archives: Human Communication 101

Turn Allocation: Rule 3

ca101 turn allocation - Rule 3

Rule 3 Current speaker MAY continue Consider the following, taken from the ongoing conversation between Kathryn, Meera and Karen. 1 Karen:   it was all a bit quick 2          (1.0) 3 Karen:   anyway, I took it home with me We see that Karen has not selected the next speaker within her first turn-constructional unit in […]

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Turn Allocation: Rule 2

ca101 turn allocation - Rule 2

Rule 2 Next speaker self-selects So far, we have only considered examples where the current speaker selects the next speaker within his or her turn at talk, either by nominating the person or by using specific questions (e.g. requests for clarification). However, there will always be instances when the current speaker does not select the […]

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Turn Allocation: Rule 1

ca101 turn allocation - Rule 1

Rule 1 Current speaker selects the next speaker Transition rules operate at transition relevance places (the rules that follow are adapted from Levinson (1983, p. 298)). The first rule recognizes the fact that it is possible to indicate within a turn-constructional unit that at its end another person is invited to speak. That is to […]

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Turn Allocation

ca101 turn allocation

Elsewhere (see Definition of Conversation) we have noted several characteristics of conversation, such as: no predetermined cognitive map by which conversations proceed collaboratively achieved managed on a turn-by-turn basis one-at-a-time talk highly coordinated With respect to managing turns at talk, three of the above are of particular importance. First, there is the general likelihood that interlocutors […]

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Adjacency Pairs

ca101 adjacency pairs

Adjacency pairs Characteristics In the 1970s, Schegloff and Sacks (1973) noted that conversations appear to be made up of sequences of two utterances. They noted that the utterances are: adjacent produced by different speakers ordered as a first part and a second part typed so that a particular first part requires a particular second part […]

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Conversation Analysis

ca101 conversation analysis procedure header

Conversation Analysis (CA) The second of the two leading procedures for analyzing conversational interaction to be considered in this introductory series is conversation analysis (CA). Whereas discourse analysis originated from linguistics, CA is grounded in the techniques and philosophical orientations of ethnomethodology (a branch of sociology that studies the commonsense understanding of the structure and organization […]

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Discourse Analysis

ca101 discourse analysis header

Discourse analysis: a leading analytical procedure Discourse analysis (DA) is one of two leading procedures for analyzing conversation that we will consider in this introductory series of articles. This analytical approach derives from the field of linguistics and it has provided useful insights into how conversation works. The second procedure is, of course, conversation analysis […]

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Definition of Conversation

ca101 definition of conversation

Institutional v informal conversation We generally think of conversations as taking place outside of specific institutional settings such as law courts, doctors’ surgeries, classrooms, religious services, and so on. This is because so-called institutional interactions are typified by at least one of the participants orienting themselves towards achieving some goal or task. For example, in […]

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CONTENTS (Conversation Analysis 101)

ca101 contents header

Contents OVERVIEW CONTENTS Definition of Conversation Analyzing Conversation Discourse analysis Conversation analysis Adjacency Pairs Turn Allocation Rule 1: current speaker selects the next speaker Rule 2: next speaker self-selects Rule 3: current speaker MAY continue Rule 4: recursive application of Rules 1-3 Overlapping Talk Inadvertent overlap Violative interruption Resolving overlapping talk Recycling Silences               Gaps Lapses […]

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conversation analysis 101 header

Overview This series of Human Communication 101 articles entitled CONVERSATION ANALYSIS 101 is all about analyzing talk in social interactions. Conversation appears to be a uniquely human social activity. In its non-institutional, informal forms, it requires a minimum of two people who freely alternate in taking turns at talk. Conversations are typically highly coordinated activities […]

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