Speech & Language Therapy Information

Category Archives: Human Communication 101


phon101 Structural Simplifications

Structural alterations Structural simplifications involve some  alteration to the structure of a particular word. Specifically, it is the structure of the syllables that make up the word that is affected. Structural simplifications are, therefore, sometimes known as syllable structure processes. There are five main structural simplifications: reduplication deletion cluster reduction metathesis epenthesis NEXT>> Reduplication      

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Child Phonological Simplifying Processes

1A Child Phonological Simplifying Processes

Simplifying processes in child language Phonological simplifying processes, as we will describe them in PHONOLOGY 101, are not generally a feature of adult language but they do occur in typically developing child speech. As we have seen, the processes constitute a set of rules or procedures for simplifying speech. Several have been identified, together with the age ranges at which […]

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CONTENTS (Phonology 101)

2A Contents

Contents OVERVIEW Scope and Terminology Underpinning Knowledge Preparatory Work Child Phonological Simplifying Processes STRUCTURAL SIMPLIFICATIONS Reduplication Deletion Consonant deletion Weak syllable deletion Cluster Reduction /s/ + C → C C + /wrl/ → C Metathesis Switching Transposition Epenthesis SYSTEMIC SIMPLIFICATIONS Substitution Fronting velar fronting post-alveolar fronting Backing Stopping Denasalization Frication Gliding Labialization Assimilation Vowel harmony Consonant harmony velar harmony labial harmony […]

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phon101 Phonology 101

Overview Phonology Phonology is the study of the rule system that governs how particular speech sounds are used to produce meaningful words. It investigates the systematic organization of sounds in a particular language. It describes the basic units of speech in any language and examines how speech sounds change when they are combined. In particular, it is concerned with […]

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CA and the Organization of Turns

CA and the organization of turns

Two leading procedures for analyzing conversation Currently, there are two leading procedures for the analysis of conversation. The first derives from linguistics and is designated as discourse analysis (DA). The second derives from the techniques of ethnomethodology and is identified as conversation analysis (CA). The dominant distinguishing feature between the two is their methodological orientation. These two […]

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Using Personal Names in Conversation

ca101 using personal names in conversation

Abstract: This brief paper considers the use of personal names in conversations and notes that the feature of address specified under the rules of turn allocation is not required in dyadic conversation. The use of personal names as vocatives that function as parenthetical addresses or summonses, which invoke a three-part summons – answer – reason […]

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Telephone Conversation

ca101 telephone conversation header

CA analysis of a telephone conversation This article provides an example analysis of a telephone conversation between two people, using the techniques and methods of conversation analysis. The transcription of the interaction is set out in Appendix A below. General comments It is apparent that the transcription is that of a telephone conversation. This is […]

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Saying it Again

ca101 saying it again

Conversational skills now form an integral part of most social and communication skills assessments and training packages for adults with learning disabilities. Their inclusion has become increasingly important owing to the current emphasis on the facilitation of self-advocacy. Most packages/approaches give consideration to ‘gross’ features such as how to open a conversation, how to take […]

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Instructor Restatements

ca101 instructor restatements

Abstract: One pervasive method of contributing to conversational interaction is through the use of back channel tokens. This paper examines the use of restatement as a back channel token in dyadic conversation between non-impaired instructors and trainees with learning disabilities within an Adult Training Center. The analysis is framed with reference to Clark and Schaefer’s […]

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Incipient Disinterest

ca101 incipient disinterest header

Trainee back channels – a case of incipient disinterest? Communication between non-impaired and learning disabled interlocutors Kernan and Sabsay (1982, 1984, 1989) note that non-disabled persons recognize someone as having a learning disability primarily because of the way that person engages in conversational interaction. Such persons are perceived to be socially unskilled and linguistically incompetent […]

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