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Appendix 1: Transcription Conventions

Transcription conventions Different analysts highlight different features of talk as being important to their research purposes. Consequently, there are several published sets of transcription conventions available. Having said this, I have found the following conventions to be particularly useful: they can almost certainly be profitably…

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Silences in Conversation

Silences – just what are they? Before taking a look at silences in conversation, let us first recap what we have covered so far. We have seen that conversations appear to be made up of paired utterances of the type, greeting – greeting, question…

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Attributable Silence

Attributable silence – whose silence is it? The third type of silence we will identify is the selected next speaker’s attributable silence subsequent to the application of Rule 1. Consider the following. 1 Tony:  so what do you think then John?…

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Lapses in Conversation

Non-application of turn-taking rules Whereas gaps can be seen to be delays in the application of turn allocation rules (Rule 2 and Rule 3), lapses in conversations result from the non-application of the rules. Consider the following conversation involving three people.

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Gaps in Conversation

Delay in applying turn-taking rules Silence in conversation is differentially assigned according to the application or non-application of the turn allocation rules outlined above. So, for example, gaps in conversations occur prior to the application of either Rule 2 (next speaker self-selects)…

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Recycling

Following an overlap Another point worth considering is in relation to our earlier comment that overlapping talk potentially cannot be heard properly. We are aware that a characteristic of collaborative conversation is that the current speaker strives to ensure that he or she is being attended…

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Resolving Overlapping Talk

Ways of resolving overlapping talk We have noted elsewhere (see Definition of Conversation) that, in the relatively few instances when there is overlapping talk, interlocutors attempt to rectify the situation by reverting to a state of one, and only one, speaker as quickly as possible. How…

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