Category Archives: Human Communication 101

Appendix 1: Answers

appendix 1 answers

Suggested answers to Exercises   1. Phonemic, syllabic and word.           2. flag /flæg/ → /fæg/ = initial cluster reduction   snake /sneɪk/ → /səneɪk/ = epenthesis   police /pəˈlis/ → /ˈlis/ = weak syllable deletion   posts /peʊsts/ → /peʊs/ = final cluster reduction   case /keɪs/ → /seɪk/ = metathesis (switching)   cup /kʌp/ […]

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1. Name the three levels at which the speech sound system is organized.   2. Analyze the realizations of the following words and identify which structural phonological simplifying process (Reduplication, Deletion, Cluster Reduction, Metathesis, Epenthesis) may be operating, e.g. dog /dɒg/ → /dɒ/ = final consonant deletion; lamp /læmp/ → /læm/ = final cluster reduction; rabbit /ræbɪt/ → /bærɪt/ = metathesis, film […]

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co-occurrence of phonological processes

The phonological simplifying processes described in PHONOLOGY 101 should serve to illustrate that many of the ‘mistakes’ children make are not really errors at all. In fact, the majority of children are still using some phonological simplifying processes up to the age of 5;00 years, and some even beyond this. As with most processes of human communication, phonological simplifying processes do […]

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summary of phonological simplifying processes

The phonological structural simplifications and systemic simplifications discussed in PHONOLOGY 101 are listed in Table 15.   Table 15. Phonological simplifying processes. Table 16 provides summary definitions of each structural process, with examples, and Table 17 presents summary definitions and examples of each systemic phonological simplifying process.   Table 16. Summary definitions of structural phonological processes.   Table 17. […]

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Cluster Coalescence

cluster coalescence

Clusters are often simplified by the process of feature synthesis. This occurs when the phonetic characteristics of one segment of the cluster are combined with the phonetic characteristics of the other segment, thereby yielding just one new single segment. Consider the following.   smoke /sməʊk/ → [m̥əʊk]   In this example, the voicelessness of the initial /s/in the cluster is […]

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Feature Synthesis

feature synthesis

FEATURE SYNTHESIS Definition: Combining the features of two segments to yield a single different segment. Comment: Mutual influence between two speech sounds causes them to fuse and generate a single different sound. Examples: spoon /spun/ → [fun] sleep /slip/ → [ɬip]   As well as progressive and regressive assimilation, there is a third type of assimilation. This occurs when […]

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Voicing Change

voicing change

VOICING CHANGE Definition: Replacing voiceless consonants with voiced consonants and voiced consonants with voiceless consonants. Comment: This process is particularly noticeable as voiceless consonants at the start of words being voiced, and voiced consonants at the ends of words being de-voiced. Examples: sun /sʌn/ → /zʌn/             (voicing) nose /nəʊz/ → /nəʊs/      (de-voicing)   In principle, voicing […]

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Labial Harmony

labial harmony

NB: This sub-section discusses Labial Harmony which is a particular type of Consonant Harmony. Labial harmony process As well as velars functioning as triggers, labials can also act as triggers. When a labial consonant triggers the assimilation of a target consonant then this is known as labial harmony. Once again, alveolars are particularly susceptible to this type of consonant harmony. Consider […]

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Velar Harmony

velar harmony

NB: This sub-section discusses Velar Harmony which is a particular type of Consonant Harmony. Velar harmony process Alveolars are particularly susceptible to harmony. Here is another example.   tick /tɪk/ → /kɪk/   Again, we see that a target alveolar has assimilated to the place of articulation of a trigger velar, i.e. the voiceless alveolar plosive /t/ has assimilated […]

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Consonant Harmony

CONSONANT HARMONY Definition: A target consonant assumes the place of articulation of a trigger consonant across an intervening vowel. Comment: Consonant harmony takes place in CVC syllables where the two consonants are different. One of the consonants triggers the other to assume its place of articulation. This results in a CVC syllable in which the two consonants are now the […]

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