Non-verbal communication uses several components to intentionally or unintentionally pass messages to others. Some of these components are static, i.e. they do not change during the course of an encounter. Static non-verbal communication components include such things as hair color, body shape and cosmetic makeup.
Dynamic non-verbal communication uses components that change during the course of an encounter. These are the components typically thought of as body language, i.e. gestures, facial expression, eye movement, and similar.
The communication model known as The Communication Chain can helps us classify communication disabilities according to the level at which a disruption occurs: linguistic, physiological or acoustic.
Communication problems are variously described as communication disabilities, a communication disorder or simply as trouble talking. The ways in which effective communication may be disrupted are vast. However, we can begin to understand these in relation to a communication model known as The Communication Chain. This model helps us classify communication disabilities according to the level at which a disruption occurs: linguistic, physiological or acoustic. We will see that language difficulties are generally a product of disruption at the linguistic level and speech difficulties are largely a result of disruptions at the physiological level.
There is no universal answer to the question, “How can I improve my communication skills?” It depends on your reason for communicating. Speech therapists attempt to prevent or alleviate communication problems (communication difficulties) in persons with language, speech, fluency or voice difficulties. But they also have suggestions for good communication skills for adults when speaking with children. This article provides 12 simple strategies for effective verbal communication when speaking with young children.
Conversation represents the archetypal language use through which people participate in social interactions. This article sets out the major characteristics of conversations. They are highly coordinated, collaborative events. They generally have no more than one person speaking at a time and they proceed without a predetermined cognitive map. They are constructed on a turn-by-turn basis.
Inference is an essential component of meaning-making and being understood. Since people communicate far more meaning than they ever encode and decode linguistically their meaning must be inferred by the listener. In fact, it is arguable that all human communication, including non-verbal communication, is inferential.
The encode-decode model states that the thing which makes communication possible is a common language. However, there are several problems with this simple account. For instance, human communication is not typically conducted in a linear, stepwise fashion. Also, the model does not take into account how people both create and process meaning.