Speech & Language Therapy Information

Category Archives: Voice

Laryngoscopic Examination

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Examination of the larynx (laryngoscopic examination) and vocal tract is essential for anyone presenting with a persistent voice disorder, in order to rule out or identify any laryngeal pathology. There are four main methods: mirror laryngoscopy, rigid endoscopy, flexible nasendoscopy and direct laryngoscopy. A stroboscope is frequently used to improve views of the vibrating vocal folds (vocal cords). Children generally tolerate these procedures.

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Instrumental Measurement of Voice

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Instrumental measurement of voice attempts to make objective, quantifiable measurements of vocal characteristics and examine the physiology of phonation. Acoustic analysis is commonly carried out by speech therapists. The Praat software program assists with the analysis, synthesis, and manipulation of speech. This article discusses a brief protocol for performing acoustic analysis.

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Perceptual Assessment of Voice

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Perceptual assessment of voice involves describing the voice solely by listening. Voice assessment may be informal or formal. Formal perceptual evaluation typically uses a published protocol to systematically describe characteristics of voice disorder. This article outlines a screening assessment known as CVE2, demonstrating how to build a vocal profile.

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Maximum Phonation Time

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Maximum Phonation Time (MPT) is a useful measure of vocal function. It is quick and easy to administer and provides a simple test of glottic efficiency. This article describes how to calculate MPT and how to interpret MPT results.

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Functional Tasks for Assessing Voice

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Question As part of a study we are asking speech therapists what they think the purpose of some functional assessment tasks are. The two I am investigating are: Getting the client to sing a simple song such as Happy Birthday. Getting the client to sustain the vowel /a/ – (not the MPT task). My response […]

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Vocal Nodules

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Vocal nodules are non-malignant calluses on the vocal cords. They may be large or small, soft or hard. They are caused by trauma to the vocal cords because of vocal misuse and abuse. The voice sounds rough with associated breathiness. Pitch and pitch range is restricted. Voice therapy is the preferred treatment option. However, hard (fibrosed) vocal nodules will first require surgical removal followed by voice therapy to eliminate abusive vocal behaviors that might lead to a recurrence.

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What is tempo? Tempo is a person’s speaking rate or rate of speech. Tempo is a component of prosody. However, it is also a constituent of rhythm. Rhythm in turn is a product of stress and accent. So, whilst it is convenient to consider the components of prosody separately, we must not lose sight of […]

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Loudness is the perception of how intense sounds appear to be. The greater the amplitude of the vocal fold vibration, the louder we perceive a speech sound to be. Vocal loudness is measured in decibels (dB).

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The frequency of vibration of the vocal folds is the number of vibrations per second. The frequency is perceived as the pitch of the voice. Fundamental frequency varies by sex and age. Human speech typically ranges from 100-10,000 Hz.

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Intonation is the musical quality that accompanies speech. It is created through rhythmic changes and distinctive pitch changes known as tones. Primary tones either fall or rise. The ability to vary intonation contours is important in expressing a diversity of intellectual and emotional meanings, attitudes, and similar.

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