Category Archives: Psychology

Thinking about Disability

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ABSTRACT In this article we consider how personal experience of inclusion and exclusion has been a major driving force in the development of inclusive education, with disabled adults in particular struggling to redefine their experiences of schooling. One major factor in this struggle towards redefinition has been the shift towards a social model of disability. […]

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Theory of Planned Behavior

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The Theory of Planned Behavior seeks to explain why people perform certain actions. They do so because they form an intention to carry out the action. Intentions are influenced by the person’s beliefs, the social pressure to conform to the wishes of others, and their perceived ability to carry out the action. These are known as beliefs, salient referents and perceived behavioral control. An activity to practice the application of the model is presented.

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What is Psychology?

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All speech-language pathologists (speech therapists) study psychology. Psychology is the use of scientific methods to study people, the mind and behavior. Psychological ideas are popular in everyday life and its relevance to everyday concerns means that psychological knowledge is continually absorbed into culture and the language we use. Psychological research and knowledge may sometimes be developed from common sense but, as a discipline, psychology is different from common sense in that it is evidence-based and the result of systematic research.

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Concept Formation

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One of the ways we organize our thoughts is by putting them into categories. This process of developing categories is called concept formation.

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Socio-cultural psychologist The principal historical figure behind so-called socio-cultural psychology is Lev Vygotsky, who lived in Moscow during the 1920s. By all accounts he was an unusual man, a many-talented individual who directed plays and wrote about subjects as diverse as art, neurophysiology and Marxist theory. But his main occupation was as an educational psychologist, […]

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Using Mental Images

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Numerous experiments have been carried out that support the suggestion that we will remember verbal or written information better if we also form a mental image of the information.

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Thought and Language

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The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that thought and language are the same thing and that one’s particular language shapes one’s worldview. This idea, that some concepts may be unthinkable because a language has no names for certain concepts, is debunked.

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A schema is a mental framework for efficiently categorizing our experiences so that when we encounter similar experiences again we do not have to relearn how to respond or how to behave. Schemas provide an organizing framework for acting within the world.

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Representational Thinking

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Representational thinking is the ability to think in analogies, to understand symbols and to infer meanings. It is suggested that as the brain evolved, increasing in size, this triggered a software-hardware self-feeding spiral. After humans developed the ability to infer meaning from others’ actions language was added-on to create an efficient communication system.

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Question What did Piaget mean by ‘action’? My Response The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1980) is renowned for his theory of cognitive development. In sum, Piaget considered that the developing child is not able to carry out certain tasks until he or she is psychologically/cognitively ready. He claimed that children pass through particular stages of […]

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