Speech & Language Therapy Information

Category Archives: Communication

Features of Communication

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The following diagram summarises the various areas of study in relation to human communication. Click on the boxes to learn more.  

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What Do We Talk About?

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Just what do humans talk about? Well, we communicate in speech and writing by packaging information into clauses. A clause typically consists of a process and a participant. Sometimes circumstances may be added to provide additional details about the process. The processes themselves represent the goings-on that we talk about. There are three types of process: states, events and actions. This, in essence, is what humans talk about.

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Situational Variables

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Situational variables are factors that may influence communicative behavior. The physical and social surroundings, timing, reasons for communicating and individual physiological and mood states can affect language choice in any particular situation.

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Remedies for Interruptions in Conversation

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Utterances in conversation are prone to being overlapped. There are several remedies for interruptions, including dropping out, competitive allocation, recycling, using non-verbal gestures, subordinating and listing.

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Transition Relevance Places

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Transition relevance places (TRPs) are places in an ongoing informal conversation where the turn at talk may legitimately pass from one speaker to another.

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Interruption

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Utterances in conversation are prone to being overlapped. Overlaps are interpreted either as inadvertent overlap or as violative interruption (deliberate interruptions) dependent on whether or not they appear at a transition relevance place (TRP), i.e. a place where the turn at talk may legitimately transfer to another speaker.

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Fundamentals for Developing Human Communication

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There are certain fundamentals for developing human communication. These pre-requisite skills can be broken down into those required for language development and those required for speech development.

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Entropy and Redundancy in Human Communication

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Transmission models of communication stress the need to achieve an appropriate balance between messages with highly unpredictable information (entropy) and highly predictable information (redundancy). In this way, communication between speakers and hearers is improved.

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Static Non-Verbal Communication

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Non-verbal communication uses several components to intentionally or unintentionally pass messages to others. Some of these components are static, i.e. they do not change during the course of an encounter. Static non-verbal communication components include such things as hair color, body shape and cosmetic makeup.

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Dynamic Non-Verbal Communication

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Dynamic non-verbal communication uses components that change during the course of an encounter. These are the components typically thought of as body language, i.e. gestures, facial expression, eye movement, and similar.

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