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1.

Name the three levels at which the speech sound system is organized.

 

2.

Analyze the realizations of the following words and identify which structural phonological simplifying process (Reduplication, DeletionCluster Reduction, Metathesis, Epenthesis) may be operating, e.g. dog /dɒg/ → /dɒ/ = final consonant deletion; lamp /læmp/ /læm/ = final cluster reduction; rabbit /ræbɪt/ /bærɪt/ = metathesis, film /fɪlm/  /fɪləm/ = epenthesis:

 

 

flag

/flæg/

/fæg/

 

snake

/sneɪk/

/səneɪk/

 

police

/pəˈlis/

/ˈlis/

 

posts

/peʊsts/

/peʊs/

 

case

/keɪs/

/seɪk/

 

cup

/kʌp/

/ʌp/

 

pat

/pæt/

/pæ/

 

flow

/fləʊ/

/fəʊl/

 

bring

/brɪŋ/

/bərɪŋ/

 

boat

/bəʊt/

/bəʊ/

 

daddy

/dædɪ/

/dædæ/

 

3.

Analyze the realizations of the following words and identify which systemic simplifications (Fronting, Backing, Stopping, DenasalizationFrication, Gliding, Labialization) may be operating, e.g. bag /bæg/ /bæd/ = syllable-final velar fronting; rope /rəʊp/ /zəʊp/ = frication:

 

 

miss

/mɪs/

/mɪt/

 

look

/lʊk/

/zʊk/

 

day

/deɪ/

/beɪ/

 

shed

/ʃɛd/

/fɛd/

 

door

/dɔ/

/gɔ/

 

love

/lʌv/

/jʌv/

 

man

/mæn/

/bæn/

 

pig

/pɪg/

/pɪd/

 

soap

/səʊp/

/təʊp/

 

kit

/kɪt/

/tɪt/

 

badge

/bæʤ/

/bæz/

 

read

/rid/

/jid/

 

hat

/hæt/

/hæk/

 

ring

/rɪŋ/

/rɪg/

 

See Appendix 1 for suggested answers to these exercises.

 

Activities

  1. Make an audio recording of an informal conversation between two people. Select one of the participants as the subject and transcribe the first 300 words used by them. Determine the number of syllables in each word and then calculate the average word length in syllables for all 300 words. Also make a note of the longest and shortest words (in syllables). Next, select two written articles, one from the tabloid press and one from the broadsheets. Similarly, determine the number of syllables in each of the first 300 words of both articles, together with the average word lengths. Again make a note of the longest and shortest words (in syllables) for each article. Describe your findings and explain any differences.
  2. Make an audio recording of the speech of a three-year-old child and make a phonemic transcription of at least 50 words. Identify examples of systemic substitutions. Identify any homophones that are used/created by substituting processes. How does the occurrence of these processes affect the child’s intelligibility?

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