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Post-alveolar Fronting

3B Post-Alveolar Fronting

We have indicated elsewhere (see Fronting) that, as well as velar consonants being fronted, post-alveolar consonants can also be affected. Fronting of /ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ/ is known as post-alveolar fronting (or sometimes palato-alveolar fronting). Like velar fronting, it can occur in syllable-initial or syllable-final position. Consider the word jam /ʤæm/ being realized as /væm/. Here, the initial voiced post-alveolar fricative […]

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Velar Fronting

2B Velar Fronting

Consider the word cup /kʌp/. This word begins with the velar plosive /k/ followed by the vowel /ʌ/ and finally by the bilabial plosive /p/. Rather than producing the velar consonant /k/ – at the back of the mouth – the child may produce a sound at the front of the mouth, such as the alveolar /t/ to yield […]

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Fronting

1B Fronting

FRONTING Definition: Replacing back consonants with front consonants.  Comment: Fronting occurs when any consonant that is made posterior to the alveolar ridge is substituted by another consonant that is made at or in front of the alveolar ridge. However, fronting does not apply to the approximants /r j/ or to the glottal /h/. Examples: cup /kʌp/ → /tʌp/             (syllable-initial fronting) […]

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Epenthesis

9B Epenthesis

EPENTHESIS Definition: The insertion of a vowel to break up a cluster. Comment: The speed of movement needed to produce a transition from one consonant to another in a cluster can be slowed by the insertion of a vowel. The inserted vowel is typically a schwa (neutral vowel). Examples: blue /blu/ → /bəlu/           (syllable-initial cluster affected) film /fɪlm/ → /fɪləm/         […]

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Metathesis

8A Metathesis

METATHESIS Definition: The rearrangement of two consonants in a syllable. Comment: Metathesis occurs when two consonants within a syllable are placed in a different order. They may simply switch place with another consonant or be transposed to a different position. Examples: ask /ɑsk/ → /ɑks/             (switching) star /stɑ/ → /sɑt/              (transposition)   Metathesis involves either consonants switching position with an […]

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