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Denasalization

6B Denasalization

DENASALIZATION Definition: Replacing nasal sounds with homorganic (same place) stops. Comment: Denasalization is a special case of stopping. Stopping involves replacing continuant consonants with stop consonants. In the case of denasalization, the continuant consonants that are stopped are the nasals /m n ŋ/. They are substituted by a stop consonant produced at the same place of articulation. Examples: me /mi/ […]

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Stopping

5B Stopping

STOPPING Definition: Replacing continuant consonants with stop consonants. Comment: Stopping occurs when continuant consonants (nasals, fricatives, affricates and approximants) are substituted with a stop consonant /p b t d k g ʔ/. Examples: sun → /tʌn/                          (syllable-initial stopping) love → /lʌb/                         (syllable-final stopping)   Recall that one of the distinguishing features of speech sounds is the manner of their articulation, i.e. the […]

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SYSTEMIC SIMPLIFICATIONS

phon101 Systemic Simplifications

Unlike structural simplifications, systemic simplifications do not alter the syllable structure of a word. Rather, they systematically alter a particular type of speech sound and replace it with another speech sound. Systemic simplifying processes may be divided into two types: substitution assimilation NEXT>> Substitution

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Substitution

substitution

There are many different types of substitution that can be made in typically developing speech. We will consider seven of these in this subsection: fronting backing stopping denasalization frication gliding labialization NEXT>> Fronting

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Backing

4B Backing

BACKING Definition: Replacing a non-velar or non-glottal consonant with a velar or glottal consonant. Comment: Backing occurs whenever a non-velar or non-glottal consonant (i.e. a bilabial, labio-dental, dental, alveolar, post-alveolar or palatal consonant) is substituted by a velar /k ɡ ŋ/ or glottal /h ʔ/consonant. Examples: duck /dʌk/ → /kʌk/          (syllable-initial backing) bad /bæd/ → /bæɡ/          (syllable-final backing)   In order […]

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