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Vowel Harmony

vowel harmony

VOWEL HARMONY Definition: Replacing the unstressed vowel in a multisyllabic word with the vowel that receives the primary stress. Comment:  Vowel harmony affects unstressed vowels. They are assimilated to the vowel within the syllable that receives the primary stress so that both vowels are the same – they harmonize. Harmony can spread from left-to-right (progressive) or from right-to-left (regressive). Examples: […]

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Assimilation

assimilation

Assimilatory processes Assimilation is said to have taken place when one speech segment is transformed into another owing to the influence of a neighboring segment. In the majority of cases the segments are individual speech sounds but there are instances where a whole syllable will influence a neighboring syllable. There are also instances where the neighboring segment is, in […]

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Labialization

labialization

LABIALIZATION Definition: Replacing tongue tip consonants with labial consonants. Comment: Labialization occurs when a tongue tip consonant /t d n s z θ ð/ is substituted by a labial consonant /p b m w f v/ made at the same place of articulation.   NB: Substitution of the liquid /l/ is excluded from this definition (because substitution by /w/ would be […]

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Gliding

8B Gliding

GLIDING Definition: Replacing a continuant (especially a liquid) with a glide. Comment: In principle, gliding occurs when any continuant is replaced with a glide /w j/. However, a particular and common instance of gliding is gliding of liquids. In this process it is just the liquids /r l/ that are replaced with a glide /w j/.   Gliding is […]

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Frication

7B Frication

  FRICATION Definition: Replacing an approximant with a fricative. Comment: Frication occurs whenever an approximant consonant (a glide /w j/ or a liquid /r l/) is substituted by a fricative consonant /f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h/. Examples: you /ju/ → /zu/ red /rɛd/ → /ðɛd/   Recall that there are four approximants in English (two […]

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