Contents

Introduction

What is a Speech Sound?

Studying Speech

Making Speech Sounds

Age of Acquisition of Speech Sounds

Transcribing Speech Sounds

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)

VOWELS

Vowel Variation

Parameters for Describing Vowels

Charting Vowels

Simple Vowels

Front Vowels

Central Vowels

Back Vowels

Summary of Simple Vowels

Complex Vowels

Summary of Complex Vowels

Comparing Accents

CONSONANTS

Plosives

Nasals

Fricatives

Affricates

Approximants

Naming Conventions for Consonants

Summary of English Consonants

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