Speech & Language Therapy Information

Category Archives: Phonology 101

Post-alveolar Fronting

3B Post-Alveolar Fronting

We have indicated elsewhere (see Fronting) that, as well as velar consonants being fronted, post-alveolar consonants can also be affected. Fronting of /ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ/ is known as post-alveolar fronting (or sometimes palato-alveolar fronting). Like velar fronting, it can occur in syllable-initial or syllable-final position. Consider the word jam /ʤæm/ being realized as /væm/. Here, the initial voiced post-alveolar fricative […]

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Velar Fronting

2B Velar Fronting

Consider the word cup /kʌp/. This word begins with the velar plosive /k/ followed by the vowel /ʌ/ and finally by the bilabial plosive /p/. Rather than producing the velar consonant /k/ – at the back of the mouth – the child may produce a sound at the front of the mouth, such as the alveolar /t/ to yield […]

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Fronting

1B Fronting

FRONTING Definition: Replacing back consonants with front consonants.  Comment: Fronting occurs when any consonant that is made posterior to the alveolar ridge is substituted by another consonant that is made at or in front of the alveolar ridge. However, fronting does not apply to the approximants /r j/ or to the glottal /h/. Examples: cup /kʌp/ → /tʌp/             (syllable-initial fronting) […]

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Epenthesis

9B Epenthesis

EPENTHESIS Definition: The insertion of a vowel to break up a cluster. Comment: The speed of movement needed to produce a transition from one consonant to another in a cluster can be slowed by the insertion of a vowel. The inserted vowel is typically a schwa (neutral vowel). Examples: blue /blu/ → /bəlu/           (syllable-initial cluster affected) film /fɪlm/ → /fɪləm/         […]

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Metathesis

8A Metathesis

METATHESIS Definition: The rearrangement of two consonants in a syllable. Comment: Metathesis occurs when two consonants within a syllable are placed in a different order. They may simply switch place with another consonant or be transposed to a different position. Examples: ask /ɑsk/ → /ɑks/             (switching) star /stɑ/ → /sɑt/              (transposition)   Metathesis involves either consonants switching position with an […]

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Cluster Reduction

7A Cluster Reduction

CLUSTER REDUCTION Definition: Omitting one or more consonants in a consonant cluster. Comment: Consonant clusters (or blends) can appear in syllable-initial or syllable-final position. Cluster reduction occurs when any consonant of a cluster is omitted. The reduction may be partial, with at least one member of the cluster still being produced, or total, with the entire cluster being omitted. Examples: […]

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Weak Syllable Deletion

6A Weak Syllable Deletion

WEAK SYLLABLE DELETION Definition: Omitting the unstressed or weak syllable of a multisyllabic word. Comment: In this process it is the weak or unstressed syllable of a multisyllabic word that is omitted. The deleted syllable may be in the initial, the final or a medial position of the word. Examples: tomato /təˈmɑˌtəʊ/ → /mɑˌtəʊ/ elephant /ˈɛləˌfənt/ → /ˈɛˌfənt/   In children between […]

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Consonant Deletion

5A Consonant Deletion

CONSONANT DELETION Definition: Consonant deletion occurs whenever a consonant in syllable-initial or syllable-final position is omitted. Comment: Consonants may simply be omitted from the beginning or ends of syllables. Whenever consonants in clusters are omitted this is not considered to be consonant deletion but the process of cluster reduction. Examples: ball /bɔl/ → /ɔl/                 (initial consonant deleted) cup /cʌp/ → /kʌ/               (final consonant […]

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Deletion

4A Deletion

Two types of deletion A simple way to alter the structure of a word is to omit particular speech segments. There are two main speech segments that are typically deleted: consonants weak syllables NEXT>> Consonant Deletion      

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Reduplication

3A Reduplication

REDUPLICATION Definition: The repetition of the initial CV syllable in a multisyllabic word. [For further clarification see On the Definition of Reduplication] Comment: Children typically exhibit reduplication during the babbling stage around 6-9 months of age. Consequently, the phonological process of reduplication is typically eradicated before the important phonological development stage of 1;06-4;00 years. Examples: doggie /dɒgɪ/ → /dɒdɒ/ bottle /bɒtəl/ […]

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